Dalit ("untouchable") histories
- [1909-1915] Mangu Ram Muggowal was a Punjabi Dalit Ghadarite living in San Francisco from ~1913-1915. All my facts are from an article credited to Hari Paul Randhawa. Per Randhawa, Mangoo Ram arrived in California in late 1909, and worked for former zamindars (landowners) of his village in the San Joaquin Valley, and then later in a sugar mill. Randhawa describes him as living "first in Fresno, then in Stockton, Sacramento, El Centro, Vacaville, Visalia, and again in Fresno." He joined the Ghadar Party sometimes around 1913 as a "full-time worker" out of San Francisco and was "struck by the fact that, as he was later to say, 'it was a new society; we were treated as equal.'" He was apparently only one of two Dalits in the group. In 1915, he took on a mission smuggling weapons to Punjab. After an adventure that took him to Australia, Mexico, and Hawaii, before being captured by the Japanese, who jailed him for a year, and then he was rescued by Germans, and went to the Philippines, where he hid out until the end of World War I. For more commentary, read Gurpreet Singh's article "Remembering an unsung Dalit hero of the Ghadar movement" and coverage on Sikh Pioneers.